Merge tag 'nfs-for-4.20-2' of git://git.linux-nfs.org/projects/trondmy/linux-nfs
[sfrench/cifs-2.6.git] / tools / usb / ffs-test.c
1 /*
2  * ffs-test.c -- user mode filesystem api for usb composite function
3  *
4  * Copyright (C) 2010 Samsung Electronics
5  *                    Author: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
6  *
7  * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
8  * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
9  * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
10  * (at your option) any later version.
11  *
12  * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
13  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
14  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
15  * GNU General Public License for more details.
16  *
17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
18  * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
19  * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
20  */
21
22 /* $(CROSS_COMPILE)cc -Wall -Wextra -g -o ffs-test ffs-test.c -lpthread */
23
24
25 #define _DEFAULT_SOURCE /* for endian.h */
26
27 #include <endian.h>
28 #include <errno.h>
29 #include <fcntl.h>
30 #include <pthread.h>
31 #include <stdarg.h>
32 #include <stdbool.h>
33 #include <stdio.h>
34 #include <stdlib.h>
35 #include <string.h>
36 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
37 #include <sys/stat.h>
38 #include <sys/types.h>
39 #include <unistd.h>
40 #include <tools/le_byteshift.h>
41
42 #include "../../include/uapi/linux/usb/functionfs.h"
43
44
45 /******************** Little Endian Handling ********************************/
46
47 /*
48  * cpu_to_le16/32 are used when initializing structures, a context where a
49  * function call is not allowed. To solve this, we code cpu_to_le16/32 in a way
50  * that allows them to be used when initializing structures.
51  */
52
53 #if __BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN
54 #define cpu_to_le16(x)  (x)
55 #define cpu_to_le32(x)  (x)
56 #else
57 #define cpu_to_le16(x)  ((((x) >> 8) & 0xffu) | (((x) & 0xffu) << 8))
58 #define cpu_to_le32(x)  \
59         ((((x) & 0xff000000u) >> 24) | (((x) & 0x00ff0000u) >>  8) | \
60         (((x) & 0x0000ff00u) <<  8) | (((x) & 0x000000ffu) << 24))
61 #endif
62
63 #define le32_to_cpu(x)  le32toh(x)
64 #define le16_to_cpu(x)  le16toh(x)
65
66 /******************** Messages and Errors ***********************************/
67
68 static const char argv0[] = "ffs-test";
69
70 static unsigned verbosity = 7;
71
72 static void _msg(unsigned level, const char *fmt, ...)
73 {
74         if (level < 2)
75                 level = 2;
76         else if (level > 7)
77                 level = 7;
78
79         if (level <= verbosity) {
80                 static const char levels[8][6] = {
81                         [2] = "crit:",
82                         [3] = "err: ",
83                         [4] = "warn:",
84                         [5] = "note:",
85                         [6] = "info:",
86                         [7] = "dbg: "
87                 };
88
89                 int _errno = errno;
90                 va_list ap;
91
92                 fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s ", argv0, levels[level]);
93                 va_start(ap, fmt);
94                 vfprintf(stderr, fmt, ap);
95                 va_end(ap);
96
97                 if (fmt[strlen(fmt) - 1] != '\n') {
98                         char buffer[128];
99                         strerror_r(_errno, buffer, sizeof buffer);
100                         fprintf(stderr, ": (-%d) %s\n", _errno, buffer);
101                 }
102
103                 fflush(stderr);
104         }
105 }
106
107 #define die(...)  (_msg(2, __VA_ARGS__), exit(1))
108 #define err(...)   _msg(3, __VA_ARGS__)
109 #define warn(...)  _msg(4, __VA_ARGS__)
110 #define note(...)  _msg(5, __VA_ARGS__)
111 #define info(...)  _msg(6, __VA_ARGS__)
112 #define debug(...) _msg(7, __VA_ARGS__)
113
114 #define die_on(cond, ...) do { \
115         if (cond) \
116                 die(__VA_ARGS__); \
117         } while (0)
118
119
120 /******************** Descriptors and Strings *******************************/
121
122 static const struct {
123         struct usb_functionfs_descs_head_v2 header;
124         __le32 fs_count;
125         __le32 hs_count;
126         __le32 ss_count;
127         struct {
128                 struct usb_interface_descriptor intf;
129                 struct usb_endpoint_descriptor_no_audio sink;
130                 struct usb_endpoint_descriptor_no_audio source;
131         } __attribute__((packed)) fs_descs, hs_descs;
132         struct {
133                 struct usb_interface_descriptor intf;
134                 struct usb_endpoint_descriptor_no_audio sink;
135                 struct usb_ss_ep_comp_descriptor sink_comp;
136                 struct usb_endpoint_descriptor_no_audio source;
137                 struct usb_ss_ep_comp_descriptor source_comp;
138         } ss_descs;
139 } __attribute__((packed)) descriptors = {
140         .header = {
141                 .magic = cpu_to_le32(FUNCTIONFS_DESCRIPTORS_MAGIC_V2),
142                 .flags = cpu_to_le32(FUNCTIONFS_HAS_FS_DESC |
143                                      FUNCTIONFS_HAS_HS_DESC |
144                                      FUNCTIONFS_HAS_SS_DESC),
145                 .length = cpu_to_le32(sizeof descriptors),
146         },
147         .fs_count = cpu_to_le32(3),
148         .fs_descs = {
149                 .intf = {
150                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.fs_descs.intf,
151                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_INTERFACE,
152                         .bNumEndpoints = 2,
153                         .bInterfaceClass = USB_CLASS_VENDOR_SPEC,
154                         .iInterface = 1,
155                 },
156                 .sink = {
157                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.fs_descs.sink,
158                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
159                         .bEndpointAddress = 1 | USB_DIR_IN,
160                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
161                         /* .wMaxPacketSize = autoconfiguration (kernel) */
162                 },
163                 .source = {
164                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.fs_descs.source,
165                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
166                         .bEndpointAddress = 2 | USB_DIR_OUT,
167                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
168                         /* .wMaxPacketSize = autoconfiguration (kernel) */
169                 },
170         },
171         .hs_count = cpu_to_le32(3),
172         .hs_descs = {
173                 .intf = {
174                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.fs_descs.intf,
175                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_INTERFACE,
176                         .bNumEndpoints = 2,
177                         .bInterfaceClass = USB_CLASS_VENDOR_SPEC,
178                         .iInterface = 1,
179                 },
180                 .sink = {
181                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.hs_descs.sink,
182                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
183                         .bEndpointAddress = 1 | USB_DIR_IN,
184                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
185                         .wMaxPacketSize = cpu_to_le16(512),
186                 },
187                 .source = {
188                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.hs_descs.source,
189                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
190                         .bEndpointAddress = 2 | USB_DIR_OUT,
191                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
192                         .wMaxPacketSize = cpu_to_le16(512),
193                         .bInterval = 1, /* NAK every 1 uframe */
194                 },
195         },
196         .ss_count = cpu_to_le32(5),
197         .ss_descs = {
198                 .intf = {
199                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.fs_descs.intf,
200                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_INTERFACE,
201                         .bNumEndpoints = 2,
202                         .bInterfaceClass = USB_CLASS_VENDOR_SPEC,
203                         .iInterface = 1,
204                 },
205                 .sink = {
206                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.hs_descs.sink,
207                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
208                         .bEndpointAddress = 1 | USB_DIR_IN,
209                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
210                         .wMaxPacketSize = cpu_to_le16(1024),
211                 },
212                 .sink_comp = {
213                         .bLength = USB_DT_SS_EP_COMP_SIZE,
214                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_SS_ENDPOINT_COMP,
215                         .bMaxBurst = 0,
216                         .bmAttributes = 0,
217                         .wBytesPerInterval = 0,
218                 },
219                 .source = {
220                         .bLength = sizeof descriptors.hs_descs.source,
221                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,
222                         .bEndpointAddress = 2 | USB_DIR_OUT,
223                         .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
224                         .wMaxPacketSize = cpu_to_le16(1024),
225                         .bInterval = 1, /* NAK every 1 uframe */
226                 },
227                 .source_comp = {
228                         .bLength = USB_DT_SS_EP_COMP_SIZE,
229                         .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_SS_ENDPOINT_COMP,
230                         .bMaxBurst = 0,
231                         .bmAttributes = 0,
232                         .wBytesPerInterval = 0,
233                 },
234         },
235 };
236
237 static size_t descs_to_legacy(void **legacy, const void *descriptors_v2)
238 {
239         const unsigned char *descs_end, *descs_start;
240         __u32 length, fs_count = 0, hs_count = 0, count;
241
242         /* Read v2 header */
243         {
244                 const struct {
245                         const struct usb_functionfs_descs_head_v2 header;
246                         const __le32 counts[];
247                 } __attribute__((packed)) *const in = descriptors_v2;
248                 const __le32 *counts = in->counts;
249                 __u32 flags;
250
251                 if (le32_to_cpu(in->header.magic) !=
252                     FUNCTIONFS_DESCRIPTORS_MAGIC_V2)
253                         return 0;
254                 length = le32_to_cpu(in->header.length);
255                 if (length <= sizeof in->header)
256                         return 0;
257                 length -= sizeof in->header;
258                 flags = le32_to_cpu(in->header.flags);
259                 if (flags & ~(FUNCTIONFS_HAS_FS_DESC | FUNCTIONFS_HAS_HS_DESC |
260                               FUNCTIONFS_HAS_SS_DESC))
261                         return 0;
262
263 #define GET_NEXT_COUNT_IF_FLAG(ret, flg) do {           \
264                         if (!(flags & (flg)))           \
265                                 break;                  \
266                         if (length < 4)                 \
267                                 return 0;               \
268                         ret = le32_to_cpu(*counts);     \
269                         length -= 4;                    \
270                         ++counts;                       \
271                 } while (0)
272
273                 GET_NEXT_COUNT_IF_FLAG(fs_count, FUNCTIONFS_HAS_FS_DESC);
274                 GET_NEXT_COUNT_IF_FLAG(hs_count, FUNCTIONFS_HAS_HS_DESC);
275                 GET_NEXT_COUNT_IF_FLAG(count, FUNCTIONFS_HAS_SS_DESC);
276
277                 count = fs_count + hs_count;
278                 if (!count)
279                         return 0;
280                 descs_start = (const void *)counts;
281
282 #undef GET_NEXT_COUNT_IF_FLAG
283         }
284
285         /*
286          * Find the end of FS and HS USB descriptors.  SS descriptors
287          * are ignored since legacy format does not support them.
288          */
289         descs_end = descs_start;
290         do {
291                 if (length < *descs_end)
292                         return 0;
293                 length -= *descs_end;
294                 descs_end += *descs_end;
295         } while (--count);
296
297         /* Allocate legacy descriptors and copy the data. */
298         {
299 #pragma GCC diagnostic push
300 #pragma GCC diagnostic ignored "-Wdeprecated-declarations"
301                 struct {
302                         struct usb_functionfs_descs_head header;
303                         __u8 descriptors[];
304                 } __attribute__((packed)) *out;
305 #pragma GCC diagnostic pop
306
307                 length = sizeof out->header + (descs_end - descs_start);
308                 out = malloc(length);
309                 out->header.magic = cpu_to_le32(FUNCTIONFS_DESCRIPTORS_MAGIC);
310                 out->header.length = cpu_to_le32(length);
311                 out->header.fs_count = cpu_to_le32(fs_count);
312                 out->header.hs_count = cpu_to_le32(hs_count);
313                 memcpy(out->descriptors, descs_start, descs_end - descs_start);
314                 *legacy = out;
315         }
316
317         return length;
318 }
319
320
321 #define STR_INTERFACE_ "Source/Sink"
322
323 static const struct {
324         struct usb_functionfs_strings_head header;
325         struct {
326                 __le16 code;
327                 const char str1[sizeof STR_INTERFACE_];
328         } __attribute__((packed)) lang0;
329 } __attribute__((packed)) strings = {
330         .header = {
331                 .magic = cpu_to_le32(FUNCTIONFS_STRINGS_MAGIC),
332                 .length = cpu_to_le32(sizeof strings),
333                 .str_count = cpu_to_le32(1),
334                 .lang_count = cpu_to_le32(1),
335         },
336         .lang0 = {
337                 cpu_to_le16(0x0409), /* en-us */
338                 STR_INTERFACE_,
339         },
340 };
341
342 #define STR_INTERFACE strings.lang0.str1
343
344
345 /******************** Files and Threads Handling ****************************/
346
347 struct thread;
348
349 static ssize_t read_wrap(struct thread *t, void *buf, size_t nbytes);
350 static ssize_t write_wrap(struct thread *t, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);
351 static ssize_t ep0_consume(struct thread *t, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);
352 static ssize_t fill_in_buf(struct thread *t, void *buf, size_t nbytes);
353 static ssize_t empty_out_buf(struct thread *t, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);
354
355
356 static struct thread {
357         const char *const filename;
358         size_t buf_size;
359
360         ssize_t (*in)(struct thread *, void *, size_t);
361         const char *const in_name;
362
363         ssize_t (*out)(struct thread *, const void *, size_t);
364         const char *const out_name;
365
366         int fd;
367         pthread_t id;
368         void *buf;
369         ssize_t status;
370 } threads[] = {
371         {
372                 "ep0", 4 * sizeof(struct usb_functionfs_event),
373                 read_wrap, NULL,
374                 ep0_consume, "<consume>",
375                 0, 0, NULL, 0
376         },
377         {
378                 "ep1", 8 * 1024,
379                 fill_in_buf, "<in>",
380                 write_wrap, NULL,
381                 0, 0, NULL, 0
382         },
383         {
384                 "ep2", 8 * 1024,
385                 read_wrap, NULL,
386                 empty_out_buf, "<out>",
387                 0, 0, NULL, 0
388         },
389 };
390
391
392 static void init_thread(struct thread *t)
393 {
394         t->buf = malloc(t->buf_size);
395         die_on(!t->buf, "malloc");
396
397         t->fd = open(t->filename, O_RDWR);
398         die_on(t->fd < 0, "%s", t->filename);
399 }
400
401 static void cleanup_thread(void *arg)
402 {
403         struct thread *t = arg;
404         int ret, fd;
405
406         fd = t->fd;
407         if (t->fd < 0)
408                 return;
409         t->fd = -1;
410
411         /* test the FIFO ioctls (non-ep0 code paths) */
412         if (t != threads) {
413                 ret = ioctl(fd, FUNCTIONFS_FIFO_STATUS);
414                 if (ret < 0) {
415                         /* ENODEV reported after disconnect */
416                         if (errno != ENODEV)
417                                 err("%s: get fifo status", t->filename);
418                 } else if (ret) {
419                         warn("%s: unclaimed = %d\n", t->filename, ret);
420                         if (ioctl(fd, FUNCTIONFS_FIFO_FLUSH) < 0)
421                                 err("%s: fifo flush", t->filename);
422                 }
423         }
424
425         if (close(fd) < 0)
426                 err("%s: close", t->filename);
427
428         free(t->buf);
429         t->buf = NULL;
430 }
431
432 static void *start_thread_helper(void *arg)
433 {
434         const char *name, *op, *in_name, *out_name;
435         struct thread *t = arg;
436         ssize_t ret;
437
438         info("%s: starts\n", t->filename);
439         in_name = t->in_name ? t->in_name : t->filename;
440         out_name = t->out_name ? t->out_name : t->filename;
441
442         pthread_cleanup_push(cleanup_thread, arg);
443
444         for (;;) {
445                 pthread_testcancel();
446
447                 ret = t->in(t, t->buf, t->buf_size);
448                 if (ret > 0) {
449                         ret = t->out(t, t->buf, ret);
450                         name = out_name;
451                         op = "write";
452                 } else {
453                         name = in_name;
454                         op = "read";
455                 }
456
457                 if (ret > 0) {
458                         /* nop */
459                 } else if (!ret) {
460                         debug("%s: %s: EOF", name, op);
461                         break;
462                 } else if (errno == EINTR || errno == EAGAIN) {
463                         debug("%s: %s", name, op);
464                 } else {
465                         warn("%s: %s", name, op);
466                         break;
467                 }
468         }
469
470         pthread_cleanup_pop(1);
471
472         t->status = ret;
473         info("%s: ends\n", t->filename);
474         return NULL;
475 }
476
477 static void start_thread(struct thread *t)
478 {
479         debug("%s: starting\n", t->filename);
480
481         die_on(pthread_create(&t->id, NULL, start_thread_helper, t) < 0,
482                "pthread_create(%s)", t->filename);
483 }
484
485 static void join_thread(struct thread *t)
486 {
487         int ret = pthread_join(t->id, NULL);
488
489         if (ret < 0)
490                 err("%s: joining thread", t->filename);
491         else
492                 debug("%s: joined\n", t->filename);
493 }
494
495
496 static ssize_t read_wrap(struct thread *t, void *buf, size_t nbytes)
497 {
498         return read(t->fd, buf, nbytes);
499 }
500
501 static ssize_t write_wrap(struct thread *t, const void *buf, size_t nbytes)
502 {
503         return write(t->fd, buf, nbytes);
504 }
505
506
507 /******************** Empty/Fill buffer routines ****************************/
508
509 /* 0 -- stream of zeros, 1 -- i % 63, 2 -- pipe */
510 enum pattern { PAT_ZERO, PAT_SEQ, PAT_PIPE };
511 static enum pattern pattern;
512
513 static ssize_t
514 fill_in_buf(struct thread *ignore, void *buf, size_t nbytes)
515 {
516         size_t i;
517         __u8 *p;
518
519         (void)ignore;
520
521         switch (pattern) {
522         case PAT_ZERO:
523                 memset(buf, 0, nbytes);
524                 break;
525
526         case PAT_SEQ:
527                 for (p = buf, i = 0; i < nbytes; ++i, ++p)
528                         *p = i % 63;
529                 break;
530
531         case PAT_PIPE:
532                 return fread(buf, 1, nbytes, stdin);
533         }
534
535         return nbytes;
536 }
537
538 static ssize_t
539 empty_out_buf(struct thread *ignore, const void *buf, size_t nbytes)
540 {
541         const __u8 *p;
542         __u8 expected;
543         ssize_t ret;
544         size_t len;
545
546         (void)ignore;
547
548         switch (pattern) {
549         case PAT_ZERO:
550                 expected = 0;
551                 for (p = buf, len = 0; len < nbytes; ++p, ++len)
552                         if (*p)
553                                 goto invalid;
554                 break;
555
556         case PAT_SEQ:
557                 for (p = buf, len = 0; len < nbytes; ++p, ++len)
558                         if (*p != len % 63) {
559                                 expected = len % 63;
560                                 goto invalid;
561                         }
562                 break;
563
564         case PAT_PIPE:
565                 ret = fwrite(buf, nbytes, 1, stdout);
566                 if (ret > 0)
567                         fflush(stdout);
568                 break;
569
570 invalid:
571                 err("bad OUT byte %zd, expected %02x got %02x\n",
572                     len, expected, *p);
573                 for (p = buf, len = 0; len < nbytes; ++p, ++len) {
574                         if (0 == (len % 32))
575                                 fprintf(stderr, "%4zd:", len);
576                         fprintf(stderr, " %02x", *p);
577                         if (31 == (len % 32))
578                                 fprintf(stderr, "\n");
579                 }
580                 fflush(stderr);
581                 errno = EILSEQ;
582                 return -1;
583         }
584
585         return len;
586 }
587
588
589 /******************** Endpoints routines ************************************/
590
591 static void handle_setup(const struct usb_ctrlrequest *setup)
592 {
593         printf("bRequestType = %d\n", setup->bRequestType);
594         printf("bRequest     = %d\n", setup->bRequest);
595         printf("wValue       = %d\n", le16_to_cpu(setup->wValue));
596         printf("wIndex       = %d\n", le16_to_cpu(setup->wIndex));
597         printf("wLength      = %d\n", le16_to_cpu(setup->wLength));
598 }
599
600 static ssize_t
601 ep0_consume(struct thread *ignore, const void *buf, size_t nbytes)
602 {
603         static const char *const names[] = {
604                 [FUNCTIONFS_BIND] = "BIND",
605                 [FUNCTIONFS_UNBIND] = "UNBIND",
606                 [FUNCTIONFS_ENABLE] = "ENABLE",
607                 [FUNCTIONFS_DISABLE] = "DISABLE",
608                 [FUNCTIONFS_SETUP] = "SETUP",
609                 [FUNCTIONFS_SUSPEND] = "SUSPEND",
610                 [FUNCTIONFS_RESUME] = "RESUME",
611         };
612
613         const struct usb_functionfs_event *event = buf;
614         size_t n;
615
616         (void)ignore;
617
618         for (n = nbytes / sizeof *event; n; --n, ++event)
619                 switch (event->type) {
620                 case FUNCTIONFS_BIND:
621                 case FUNCTIONFS_UNBIND:
622                 case FUNCTIONFS_ENABLE:
623                 case FUNCTIONFS_DISABLE:
624                 case FUNCTIONFS_SETUP:
625                 case FUNCTIONFS_SUSPEND:
626                 case FUNCTIONFS_RESUME:
627                         printf("Event %s\n", names[event->type]);
628                         if (event->type == FUNCTIONFS_SETUP)
629                                 handle_setup(&event->u.setup);
630                         break;
631
632                 default:
633                         printf("Event %03u (unknown)\n", event->type);
634                 }
635
636         return nbytes;
637 }
638
639 static void ep0_init(struct thread *t, bool legacy_descriptors)
640 {
641         void *legacy;
642         ssize_t ret;
643         size_t len;
644
645         if (legacy_descriptors) {
646                 info("%s: writing descriptors\n", t->filename);
647                 goto legacy;
648         }
649
650         info("%s: writing descriptors (in v2 format)\n", t->filename);
651         ret = write(t->fd, &descriptors, sizeof descriptors);
652
653         if (ret < 0 && errno == EINVAL) {
654                 warn("%s: new format rejected, trying legacy\n", t->filename);
655 legacy:
656                 len = descs_to_legacy(&legacy, &descriptors);
657                 if (len) {
658                         ret = write(t->fd, legacy, len);
659                         free(legacy);
660                 }
661         }
662         die_on(ret < 0, "%s: write: descriptors", t->filename);
663
664         info("%s: writing strings\n", t->filename);
665         ret = write(t->fd, &strings, sizeof strings);
666         die_on(ret < 0, "%s: write: strings", t->filename);
667 }
668
669
670 /******************** Main **************************************************/
671
672 int main(int argc, char **argv)
673 {
674         bool legacy_descriptors;
675         unsigned i;
676
677         legacy_descriptors = argc > 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-l");
678
679         init_thread(threads);
680         ep0_init(threads, legacy_descriptors);
681
682         for (i = 1; i < sizeof threads / sizeof *threads; ++i)
683                 init_thread(threads + i);
684
685         for (i = 1; i < sizeof threads / sizeof *threads; ++i)
686                 start_thread(threads + i);
687
688         start_thread_helper(threads);
689
690         for (i = 1; i < sizeof threads / sizeof *threads; ++i)
691                 join_thread(threads + i);
692
693         return 0;
694 }