How to Install and Test SAMBA
Step 0: Read the man pages
The man pages distributed with SAMBA contain
lots of useful info that will help to get you started.
If you don't know how to read man pages then try
$ nroff -man smbd.8 | more
Other sources of information are pointed to
by the Samba web site,
Step 1: Building the Binaries
To do this, first run the program ./configure
in the source directory. This should automatically
configure Samba for your operating system. If you have unusual
needs then you may wish to run
root# ./configure --help
first to see what special options you can enable.
will create the binaries. Once it's successfully
compiled you can use
root# make install
to install the binaries and manual pages. You can
separately install the binaries and/or man pages using
root# make installbin
root# make installman
Note that if you are upgrading for a previous version
of Samba you might like to know that the old versions of
the binaries will be renamed with a ".old" extension. You
can go back to the previous version with
root# make revert
if you find this version a disaster!
Step 2: The all important step
At this stage you must fetch yourself a
coffee or other drink you find stimulating. Getting the rest
of the install right can sometimes be tricky, so you will
probably need it.
If you have installed samba before then you can skip
Step 3: Create the smb configuration file.
There are sample configuration files in the examples
subdirectory in the distribution. I suggest you read them
carefully so you can see how the options go together in
practice. See the man page for all the options.
The simplest useful configuration file would be
something like this:
workgroup = MYGROUP
guest ok = no
read only = no
which would allow connections by anyone with an
account on the server, using either their login name or
"homes" as the service name. (Note that I also set the
workgroup that Samba is part of. See BROWSING.txt for defails)
Note that make install will not install
a smb.conf file. You need to create it
Make sure you put the smb.conf file in the same place
you specified in theMakefile (the default is to
look for it in /usr/local/samba/lib/).
For more information about security settings for the
[homes] share please refer to the document UNIX_SECURITY.txt.
Step 4: Test your config file with
It's important that you test the validity of your
smb.conf file using the testparm program.
If testparm runs OK then it will list the loaded services. If
not it will give an error message.
Make sure it runs OK and that the services look
resonable before proceeding.
Step 5: Starting the smbd and nmbd
You must choose to start smbd and nmbd either
as daemons or from inetd. Don't try
to do both! Either you can put them in
inetd.conf and have them started on demand
by inetd, or you can start them as
daemons either from the command line or in
/etc/rc.local. See the man pages for details
on the command line options. Take particular care to read
the bit about what user you need to be in order to start
Samba. In many cases you must be root.
The main advantage of starting smbd
and nmbd as a daemon is that they will
respond slightly more quickly to an initial connection
request. This is, however, unlikely to be a problem.
Step 5a: Starting from inetd.conf
NOTE; The following will be different if
you use NIS or NIS+ to distributed services maps.
Look at your /etc/services.
What is defined at port 139/tcp. If nothing is defined
then add a line like this:
similarly for 137/udp you should have an entry like:
Next edit your /etc/inetd.conf
and add two lines something like this:
netbios-ssn stream tcp nowait root /usr/local/samba/bin/smbd smbd
netbios-ns dgram udp wait root /usr/local/samba/bin/nmbd nmbd
The exact syntax of /etc/inetd.conf
varies between unixes. Look at the other entries in inetd.conf
for a guide.
NOTE: Some unixes already have entries like netbios_ns
(note the underscore) in /etc/services.
You must either edit /etc/services or
/etc/inetd.conf to make them consistant.
NOTE: On many systems you may need to use the
"interfaces" option in smb.conf to specify the IP address
and netmask of your interfaces. Run ifconfig
as root if you don't know what the broadcast is for your
net. nmbd tries to determine it at run
time, but fails on somunixes. See the section on "testing nmbd"
for a method of finding if you need to do this.
!!!WARNING!!! Many unixes only accept around 5
parameters on the command line in inetd.conf.
This means you shouldn't use spaces between the options and
arguments, or you should use a script, and start the script
Restart inetd, perhaps just send
it a HUP. If you have installed an earlier version of
nmbd then you may need to kill nmbd as well.
Step 5b. Alternative: starting it as a daemon
To start the server as a daemon you should create
a script something like this one, perhaps calling
then make it executable with chmod
You can then run startsmb by
hand or execute it from /etc/rc.local
To kill it send a kill signal to the processes
nmbd and smbd.
NOTE: If you use the SVR4 style init system then
you may like to look at the examples/svr4-startup
script to make Samba fit into that system.
Step 6: Try listing the shares available on your
$ smbclient -L
Your should get back a list of shares available on
your server. If you don't then something is incorrectly setup.
Note that this method can also be used to see what shares
are available on other LanManager clients (such as WfWg).
If you choose user level security then you may find
that Samba requests a password before it will list the shares.
See the smbclient man page for details. (you
can force it to list the shares without a password by
adding the option -U% to the command line. This will not work
with non-Samba servers)
Step 7: Try connecting with the unix client
Typically the yourhostname
would be the name of the host where you installed
smbd. The aservice is
any service you have defined in the smb.conf
file. Try your user name if you just have a [homes] section
For example if your unix host is bambi and your login
name is fred you would type:
$ smbclient //bambi/fred
Step 8: Try connecting from a DOS, WfWg, Win9x, WinNT,
Win2k, OS/2, etc... client
Try mounting disks. eg:
C:\WINDOWS\> net use d: \\servername\service
Try printing. eg:
C:\WINDOWS\> net use lpt1:
C:\WINDOWS\> print filename
Celebrate, or send me a bug report!
What If Things Don't Work?
If nothing works and you start to think "who wrote
this pile of trash" then I suggest you do step 2 again (and
again) till you calm down.
Then you might read the file DIAGNOSIS.txt and the
FAQ. If you are still stuck then try the mailing list or
newsgroup (look in the README for details). Samba has been
successfully installed at thousands of sites worldwide, so maybe
someone else has hit your problem and has overcome it. You could
also use the WWW site to scan back issues of the samba-digest.
When you fix the problem PLEASE send me some updates to the
documentation (or source code) so that the next person will find it
If you have instalation problems then go to
DIAGNOSIS.txt to try to find the
By default Samba uses a blank scope ID. This means
all your windows boxes must also have a blank scope ID.
If you really want to use a non-blank scope ID then you will
need to use the -i <scope> option to nmbd, smbd, and
smbclient. All your PCs will need to have the same setting for
this to work. I do not recommend scope IDs.
Choosing the Protocol Level
The SMB protocol has many dialects. Currently
Samba supports 5, called CORE, COREPLUS, LANMAN1,
LANMAN2 and NT1.
You can choose what maximum protocol to support
in the smb.conf file. The default is
NT1 and that is the best for the vast majority of sites.
In older versions of Samba you may have found it
necessary to use COREPLUS. The limitations that led to
this have mostly been fixed. It is now less likely that you
will want to use less than LANMAN1. The only remaining advantage
of COREPLUS is that for some obscure reason WfWg preserves
the case of passwords in this protocol, whereas under LANMAN1,
LANMAN2 or NT1 it uppercases all passwords before sending them,
forcing you to use the "password level=" option in some cases.
The main advantage of LANMAN2 and NT1 is support for
long filenames with some clients (eg: smbclient, Windows NT
See the smb.conf(5) manual page for more details.
Note: To support print queue reporting you may find
that you have to use TCP/IP as the default protocol under
WfWg. For some reason if you leave Netbeui as the default
it may break the print queue reporting on some systems.
It is presumably a WfWg bug.
Printing from UNIX to a Client PC
To use a printer that is available via a smb-based
server from a unix host you will need to compile the
smbclient program. You then need to install the script
"smbprint". Read the instruction in smbprint for more details.
There is also a SYSV style script that does much
the same thing called smbprint.sysv. It contains instructions.
One area which sometimes causes trouble is locking.
There are two types of locking which need to be
performed by a SMB server. The first is "record locking"
which allows a client to lock a range of bytes in a open file.
The second is the "deny modes" that are specified when a file
Samba supports "record locking" using the fcntl() unix system
call. This is often implemented using rpc calls to a rpc.lockd process
running on the system that owns the filesystem. Unfortunately many
rpc.lockd implementations are very buggy, particularly when made to
talk to versions from other vendors. It is not uncommon for the
rpc.lockd to crash.
There is also a problem translating the 32 bit lock
requests generated by PC clients to 31 bit requests supported
by most unixes. Unfortunately many PC applications (typically
OLE2 applications) use byte ranges with the top bit set
as semaphore sets. Samba attempts translation to support
these types of applications, and the translation has proved
to be quite successful.
Strictly a SMB server should check for locks before
every read and write call on a file. Unfortunately with the
way fcntl() works this can be slow and may overstress the
rpc.lockd. It is also almost always unnecessary as clients
are supposed to independently make locking calls before reads
and writes anyway if locking is important to them. By default
Samba only makes locking calls when explicitly asked
to by a client, but if you set "strict locking = yes" then it will
make lock checking calls on every read and write.
You can also disable by range locking completely
using "locking = no". This is useful for those shares that
don't support locking or don't need it (such as cdroms). In
this case Samba fakes the return codes of locking calls to
tell clients that everything is OK.
The second class of locking is the "deny modes". These
are set by an application when it opens a file to determine
what types of access should be allowed simultaneously with
its open. A client may ask for DENY_NONE, DENY_READ, DENY_WRITE
or DENY_ALL. There are also special compatability modes called
DENY_FCB and DENY_DOS.
You can disable share modes using "share modes = no".
This may be useful on a heavily loaded server as the share
modes code is very slow. See also the FAST_SHARE_MODES
option in the Makefile for a way to do full share modes
very fast using shared memory (if your OS supports it).
If you have different usernames on the PCs and
the unix server then take a look at the "username map" option.
See the smb.conf man page for details.
Other Character Sets
If you have problems using filenames with accented
characters in them (like the German, French or Scandinavian
character sets) then I recommmend you look at the "valid chars"
option in smb.conf and also take a look at the validchars
package in the examples directory.